¿Quién fue Menéndez Pelayo y cuál es su legado?
Fallecido en Santander el 19 de Mayo de 1912, Marcelino Menéndez Pelayo sigue vivo en nombres de calles e instituciones españolas, entre las que destaca la UIMP – Universidad Internacional Menéndez Pelayo. Sin embargo, actualmente es un gran desconocido para el gran público. ¿Por qué?
Escritor, erudito y católico ortodoxo de impúdicas costumbres, fue honrado por un franquismo que adoptó sus ideales y rebautizó la Universidad Internacional de Verano de Santander con su nombre. Condenado al ostracismo por ensalzar un tradicionalismo católico venido a menos como volkgeist de España, Marcelino Menéndez Pelayo será recordado hasta nuestros días por las oscuras reflexiones de Historia de los heterodoxos españoles; a pesar de haber sido un personaje relevante en las más altas instituciones culturales de su tiempo y contar con más de 30.000 páginas de obra escritas.
Tal vez por ello, en Linkgua hemos querido recuperar su obra más polémica editando sus ocho tomos, un texto imprescindible para hispanistas e historiadores de las religiones en España. Existen dos motivos principales por los cuales resulta interesante la lectura de Historia de los heterodoxos españoles. El primero es que nos permite conocer de primera mano el “Ser de España” o la identidad nacional predominante en el país hasta hace más bien poco. Necesitamos conocer nuestro pasado para entender nuestro presente y los debates intelectuales que permanecen abiertos. Y, en ese aspecto, la Historia de los heterodoxos es una verdadera obra de referencia para los sectores más tradicionalistas. En segundo lugar, tal como suele ocurrir con los índices de libros prohibidos, la obra es todo un caramelo para los disidentes de la corriente defendida por el autor, ya que recopila, aunque sea para criticarlo duramente, el pensamiento de decenas de heterodoxos españoles que, de otro modo, habrían caído en el más absoluto olvido. Este es el caso de autores tan vigentes como José María Blanco White o Tristán de Jesús Medina, también publicados por Linkgua.
Steven Allan Spielberg (born December 18, 1946) is an American film director, screenwriter, producer, and business magnate. In a career of more than four decades, Spielberg’s films have covered many themes and genres. Spielberg’s early science-fiction and adventure films were seen as archetypes of modern Hollywood blockbuster filmmaking. In later years, his films began addressing humanistic issues such as the Holocaust, the transatlantic slave trade, war, and terrorism. He is considered one of the most popular and influential filmmakers in the history of cinema. He is also one of the co-founders of DreamWorks movie studio.
The Bostonians (film)
Foreign Investment in Real Property Tax Act
Spielberg won the Academy Award for Best Director for Schindler’s List (1993) and Saving Private Ryan (1998). Three of Spielberg’s films—Jaws (1975), E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial (1982), and Jurassic Park (1993)—achieved box office records, each becoming the highest-grossing film made at the time. To date, the unadjusted gross of all Spielberg-directed films exceeds $8.5 billion worldwide. Forbes puts Spielberg’s wealth at $3.3 billion.
1 Early life
2.1 Early career (1969–75)
2.2 Mainstream breakthrough (1975–93)
2.4 Production credits
2.5 Acting credits
2.6 Involvement in video games
2.7 Upcoming and announced projects
3 Personal life
3.1 Marriages and children
5 Praise and criticism
7 Awards and nominations
8 See also
10 Further reading
11 External links
Spielberg was born in Cincinnati, Ohio, to a Jewish family. His mother, Leah Adler (née Posner, 1920– ), was a restaurateur and concert pianist, and his father, Arnold Spielberg (1917– ), was an electrical engineer involved in the development of computers. He spent his childhood in Haddon Township, New Jersey, where he saw one of his first films in a theater, as well as in Scottsdale, Arizona. Throughout his early teens, Spielberg made amateur 8 mm “adventure” films with his friends, the first of which he shot at the Pinnacle Peak Patio restaurant in Scottsdale. He charged admission (25 cents) to his home films (which involved the wrecks he staged with his Lionel train set) while his sister sold popcorn.
In 1958, he became a Boy Scout and fulfilled a requirement for the photography merit badge by making a nine-minute 8 mm film entitled The Last Gunfight. Years later, Spielberg recalled to a magazine interviewer, “My dad’s still-camera was broken, so I asked the scoutmaster if I could tell a story with my father’s movie camera. He said yes, and I got an idea to do a Western. I made it and got my merit badge. That was how it all started.” At age thirteen, Spielberg won a prize for a 40-minute war film he titled Escape to Nowhere which was based on a battle in east Africa. In 1963, at age sixteen, Spielberg wrote and directed his first independent film, a 140-minute science fiction adventure called Firelight (which would later inspire Close Encounters). The film, which had a budget of US$500, was shown in his local cinema and generated a profit of $1. He also made several WWII films inspired by his father’s war stories.
Following his parents’ divorce, Spielberg moved to Saratoga, California with his father. His three sisters and mother remained in Arizona. After attending Arcadia High School in Phoenix, Arizona for three years, he moved back to California where he graduated from Saratoga High School in 1965. It was during this time that he attained the rank of Eagle Scout.
Spielberg attended Hebrew school from 1953 to 1957, in classes taught by Rabbi Albert L. Lewis, who would later be memorialized as the main character in Mitch Albom’s Have a Little Faith.
As a child, Spielberg faced difficulty reconciling being an Orthodox Jew with the perception of him by other children he played with. “It isn’t something I enjoy admitting,” he once said, “but when I was seven, eight, nine years old, God forgive me, I was embarrassed because we were Orthodox Jews. I was embarrassed by the outward perception of my parents’ Jewish practices. I was never really ashamed to be Jewish, but I was uneasy at times. My grandfather always wore a long black coat, black hat and long white beard. I was embarrassed to invite my friends over to the house, because he might be in a corner davening [praying], and I wouldn’t know how to explain this to my WASP friends.” Spielberg also said he suffered from acts of anti-Semitic prejudice and bullying in his early life: he later said, “In high school, I got smacked and kicked around. Two bloody noses. It was horrible.”
After moving to California, he applied to attend the film school at University of Southern California School of Theater, Film and Television two separate times, but was unsuccessful. He subsequently became a student at California State University, Long Beach. While attending Long Beach State in the 1960s, Spielberg became a brother of Theta Chi Fraternity. His actual career began when he returned to Universal Studios as an unpaid, seven-day-a-week intern and guest of the editing department (uncredited). After Spielberg became famous, USC awarded him an honorary degree in 1994, and in 1996 he became a trustee of the university. In 2002, thirty-five years after starting college, Spielberg finished his degree via independent projects at CSULB, and was awarded a B.A. in Film Production and Electronic Arts with an option in Film/Video Production.
As an intern and guest of Universal Studios, Spielberg made his first short film for theatrical release, the 26-minute Amblin’ (1968), the title of which Spielberg later took as the name of his production company, Amblin Entertainment. After Sidney Sheinberg (then the vice-president of production for Universal’s TV arm) saw the film, Spielberg became the youngest director ever to be signed for a long-term deal with a major Hollywood studio (Universal). He dropped out of Long Beach State in 1969 to take up the television director contract at Universal Studios and began his career as a professional director. In 1969, Variety announced that Spielberg would direct his first full-length film, Malcolm Winkler; written by Claudia Salter, produced by John Orland, with Frank Price being the executive producer. However, because of the difficulty in casting the key male role, the film was not made. Steven Spielberg also attended Brookdale Community College for undergrad.
In 2007, Spielberg was diagnosed with dyslexia, which he disclosed five years later in an interview.
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Early career (1969–75)
His first professional TV job came when he was hired to direct one of the segments for the 1969 pilot episode of Night Gallery. The segment, “Eyes,” starred Joan Crawford; she and Spielberg were reportedly close friends until her death. The episode is unusual in his body of work, in that the camerawork is more highly stylized than his later, more “mature” films. After this, and an episode of Marcus Welby, M.D., Spielberg got his first feature-length assignment: an episode of The Name of the Game called “L.A. 2017”. This futuristic science fiction episode impressed Universal Studios and they signed him to a short contract. He did another segment on Night Gallery and did some work for shows such as Owen Marshall: Counselor at Law and The Psychiatrist, before landing the first series episode of Columbo (previous episodes were actually TV films).
Based on the strength of his work, Universal signed Spielberg to do four TV films. The first was a Richard Matheson adaptation called Duel. The film is about a psychotic Peterbilt 281 tanker truck driver who chases the terrified driver (Dennis Weaver) of a small Plymouth Valiant and tries to run him off the road. Special praise of this film by the influential British critic Dilys Powell was highly significant to Spielberg’s career. Another TV film (Something Evil) was made and released to capitalize on the popularity of The Exorcist, then a major best-selling book which had not yet been released as a film. He fulfilled his contract by directing the TV film-length pilot of a show called Savage, starring Martin Landau. Spielberg’s debut full-length feature film was The Sugarland Express, about a married couple who are chased by police as the couple tries to regain custody of their baby. Spielberg’s cinematography for the police chase was praised by reviewers, and The Hollywood Reporter stated that “a major new director is on the horizon.” However, the film fared poorly at the box office and received a limited release.
Studio producers Richard D. Zanuck and David Brown offered Spielberg the director’s chair for Jaws, a thriller-horror film based on the Peter Benchley novel about an enormous killer shark. Spielberg has often referred to the gruelling shoot as his professional crucible. Despite the film’s ultimate, enormous success, it was nearly shut down due to delays and budget over-runs. But Spielberg persevered and finished the film. It was an enormous hit, winning three Academy Awards (for editing, original score and sound) and grossing more than $470 million worldwide at the box office. It also set the domestic record for box office gross, leading to what the press described as “Jawsmania.” Jaws made Spielberg a household name and one of America’s youngest multi-millionaires, allowing him a great deal of autonomy for his future projects. It was nominated for Best Picture and featured Spielberg’s first of three collaborations with actor Richard Dreyfuss.
Mainstream breakthrough (1975–93)
Rejecting offers to direct Jaws 2, King Kong and Superman, Spielberg and actor Richard Dreyfuss re-convened to work on a film about UFOs, which became Close Encounters of the Third Kind (1977). One of the rare films both written and directed by Spielberg, Close Encounters was a critical and box office hit, giving Spielberg his first Best Director nomination from the Academy as well as earning six other Academy Awards nominations. It won Oscars in two categories (Cinematography, Vilmos Zsigmond, and a Special Achievement Award for Sound Effects Editing, Frank E. Warner). This second blockbuster helped to secure Spielberg’s rise. His next film, 1941, a big-budgeted World War II farce, was not nearly as successful and though it grossed over $92.4 million worldwide (and did make a small profit for co-producing studios Columbia and Universal) it was seen as a disappointment, mainly with the critics.
Spielberg then revisited his Close Encounters project and, with financial backing from Columbia Pictures, released Close Encounters: The Special Edition in 1980. For this, Spielberg fixed some of the flaws he thought impeded the original 1977 version of the film and also, at the behest of Columbia, and as a condition of Spielberg revising the film, shot additional footage showing the audience the interior of the mothership seen at the end of the film (a decision Spielberg would later regret as he felt the interior of the mothership should have remained a mystery). Nevertheless, the re-release was a moderate success, while the 2001 DVD release of the film restored the original ending.
Next, Spielberg teamed with Star Wars creator and friend George Lucas on an action adventure film, Raiders of the Lost Ark, the first of the Indiana Jones films. The archaeologist and adventurer hero Indiana Jones was played by Harrison Ford (whom Lucas had previously cast in his Star Wars films as Han Solo). The film was considered an homage to the cliffhanger serials of the Golden Age of Hollywood. It became the biggest film at the box office in 1981, and the recipient of numerous Oscar nominations including Best Director (Spielberg’s second nomination) and Best Picture (the second Spielberg film to be nominated for Best Picture). Raiders is still considered a landmark example of the action-adventure genre. The film also led to Ford’s casting in Ridley Scott’s Blade Runner.
A year later, Spielberg returned to the science fiction genre with E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial. It was the story of a young boy and the alien he befriends, who was accidentally left behind by his companions and is attempting to return home. E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial went on to become the top-grossing film of all time. E.T. was also nominated for nine Academy Awards including Best Picture and Best Director.
Between 1982 and 1985, Spielberg produced three high-grossing films: Poltergeist (for which he also co-wrote the screenplay), a big-screen adaptation of The Twilight Zone (for which he directed the segment “Kick The Can”), and The Goonies (Spielberg, executive producer, also wrote the story on which the screenplay was based). Spielberg appeared in a cameo on Cyndi Lauper’s music video for the movie’s theme song, The Goonies R Good Enough.
Steven Spielberg and Chandran Rutnam on a location in Sri Lanka during the filming of Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom.
His next directorial feature was the Raiders prequel Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom. Teaming up once again with Lucas and Ford, the film was plagued with uncertainty for the material and script. This film and the Spielberg-produced Gremlins led to the creation of the PG-13 rating due to the high level of violence in films targeted at younger audiences. In spite of this, Temple of Doom is rated PG by the MPAA, even though it is the darkest and, possibly, most violent Indy film. Nonetheless, the film was still a huge blockbuster hit in 1984. It was on this project that Spielberg also met his future wife, actress Kate Capshaw.
In 1985, Spielberg released The Color Purple, an adaptation of Alice Walker’s Pulitzer Prize-winning novel of the same name, about a generation of empowered African-American women during depression-era America. Starring Whoopi Goldberg and future talk-show superstar Oprah Winfrey, the film was a box office smash and critics hailed Spielberg’s successful foray into the dramatic genre. Roger Ebert proclaimed it the best film of the year and later entered it into his Great Films archive. The film received eleven Academy Award nominations, including two for Goldberg and Winfrey. However, much to the surprise of many, Spielberg did not get a Best Director nomination. The Color Purple is the second of two Spielberg films not to be scored by John Williams, the first being Duel.
In 1987, as China began opening to Western capital investment, Spielberg shot the first American film in Shanghai since the 1930s, an adaptation of J. G. Ballard’s autobiographical novel Empire of the Sun, starring John Malkovich and a young Christian Bale. The film garnered much praise from critics and was nominated for several Oscars, but did not yield substantial box office revenues. Reviewer Andrew Sarris called it the best film of the year and later included it among the best films of the decade. Spielberg was also a co-producer of the 1987 film *batteries not included.
After two forays into more serious dramatic films, Spielberg then directed the third Indiana Jones film, 1989’s Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade. Once again teaming up with Lucas and Ford, Spielberg also cast actor Sean Connery in a supporting role as Indy’s father. The film earned generally positive reviews and was another box office success, becoming the highest grossing film worldwide that year; its total box office receipts even topped those of Tim Burton’s much-anticipated film Batman, which had been the bigger hit domestically. Also in 1989, he re-united with actor Richard Dreyfuss for the romantic comedy-drama Always, about a daredevil pilot who extinguishes forest fires. Spielberg’s first romantic film, Always was only a moderate success and had mixed reviews.
In 1991, Spielberg directed Hook, about a middle-aged Peter Pan, played by Robin Williams, who returns to Neverland. Despite innumerable rewrites and creative changes coupled with mixed reviews, the film proved popular with audiences, making over $300 million worldwide (from a $70 million budget).
In 1993, Spielberg returned to the adventure genre with the film version of Michael Crichton’s novel Jurassic Park, about a theme park with genetically engineered dinosaurs. With revolutionary special effects provided by friend George Lucas’s Industrial Light & Magic company, the film would eventually become the highest grossing film of all time (at the worldwide box office) with $914.7 million. This would be the third time that one of Spielberg’s films became the highest grossing film ever.
Spielberg’s next film, Schindler’s List, was based on the true story of Oskar Schindler, a man who risked his life to save 1,100 Jews from the Holocaust. Schindler’s List earned Spielberg his first Academy Award for Best Director (it also won Best Picture). With the film a huge success at the box office, Spielberg used the profits to set up the Shoah Foundation, a non-profit organization that archives filmed testimony of Holocaust survivors. In 1997, the American Film Institute listed it among the 10 Greatest American Films ever Made (#9) which moved up to (#8) when the list was remade in 2007.
Spielberg in March 1990
In 1994, Spielberg took a hiatus from directing to spend more time with his family and build his new studio, DreamWorks, with partners Jeffrey Katzenberg and David Geffen. In 1997, he helmed the sequel to 1993’s Jurassic Park with The Lost World: Jurassic Park, which generated over $618 million worldwide despite mixed reviews, and was the second biggest hit of 1997 behind James Cameron’s Titanic (which topped the original Jurassic Park to become the new recordholder for box office receipts).
His next film, Amistad, was based on a true story (like Schindler’s List), specifically about an African slave rebellion. Despite decent reviews from critics, it did not do well at the box office. Spielberg released Amistad under DreamWorks Pictures, which issued all of his films from Amistad until Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull in May 2008 (see below).
In 1998, Spielberg re-visited Close Encounters yet again, this time for a more definitive 137-minute “Collector’s Edition” that puts more emphasis on the original 1977 release, while adding some elements of the previous 1980 “Special Edition,” but deleting the latter version’s “Mothership Finale,” which Spielberg regretted shooting in the first place, feeling it should have remained ambiguous in the minds of viewers.
His next theatrical release in that same year was the World War II film Saving Private Ryan, about a group of U.S. soldiers led by Capt. Miller (Tom Hanks) sent to bring home a paratrooper whose three older brothers were killed in the same twenty-four hours, June 5–6, of the Normandy landing. The film was a huge box office success, grossing over $481 million worldwide and was the biggest film of the year at the North American box office (worldwide it made second place after Michael Bay’s Armageddon). Spielberg won his second Academy Award for his direction. The film’s graphic, realistic depiction of combat violence influenced later war films such as Black Hawk Down and Enemy at the Gates. The film was also the first major hit for DreamWorks, which co-produced the film with Paramount Pictures (as such, it was Spielberg’s first release from the latter that was not part of the Indiana Jones series). Later, Spielberg and Tom Hanks produced a TV mini-series based on Stephen Ambrose’s book Band of Brothers. The ten-part HBO mini-series follows Easy Company of the 101st Airborne Division’s 506th Parachute Infantry Regiment. The series won a number of awards at the Golden Globes and the Emmys.
In 2001, Spielberg filmed fellow director and friend Stanley Kubrick’s final project, A.I. Artificial Intelligence which Kubrick was unable to begin during his lifetime. A futuristic film about a humanoid android longing for love, A.I. featured groundbreaking visual effects and a multi-layered, allegorical storyline, adapted by Spielberg himself. Though the film’s reception in the US was relatively muted, it performed better overseas for a worldwide total box office gross of $236 million.
Spielberg and actor Tom Cruise collaborated for the first time for the futuristic neo-noir Minority Report, based upon the science fiction short story written by Philip K. Dick about a Washington D.C. police captain in the year 2054 who has been foreseen to murder a man he has not yet met. The film received strong reviews with the review tallying website Rotten Tomatoes giving it a 92% approval rating, reporting that 206 out of the 225 reviews they tallied were positive. The film earned over $358 million worldwide. Roger Ebert, who named it the best film of 2002, praised its breathtaking vision of the future as well as for the way Spielberg blended CGI with live-action.
Spielberg in 2011, at the Paris premiere of The Adventures of Tintin.
Spielberg’s 2002 film Catch Me If You Can is about the daring adventures of a youthful con artist (played by Leonardo DiCaprio). It earned Christopher Walken an Academy Award nomination for Best Supporting Actor. The film is known for John Williams’ score and its unique title sequence. It was a hit both commercially and critically.
Spielberg collaborated again with Tom Hanks along with Catherine Zeta-Jones and Stanley Tucci in 2004’s The Terminal, a warm-hearted comedy about a man of Eastern European descent who is stranded in an airport. It received mixed reviews but performed relatively well at the box office. In 2005, Empire magazine ranked Spielberg number one on a list of the greatest film directors of all time.
Also in 2005, Spielberg directed a modern adaptation of War of the Worlds (a co-production of Paramount and DreamWorks), based on the H. G. Wells book of the same name (Spielberg had been a huge fan of the book and the original 1953 film). It starred Tom Cruise and Dakota Fanning, and, as with past Spielberg films, Industrial Light & Magic (ILM) provided the visual effects. Unlike E.T. and Close Encounters of the Third Kind, which depicted friendly alien visitors, War of the Worlds featured violent invaders. The film was another huge box office smash, grossing over $591 million worldwide.
Spielberg’s film Munich, about the events following the 1972 Munich Massacre of Israeli athletes at the Olympic Games, was his second film essaying Jewish relations in the world (the first being Schindler’s List). The film is based on Vengeance: The True Story of an Israeli Counter-Terrorist Team, a book by Canadian journalist George Jonas. It was previously adapted into the 1986 made-for-TV film Sword of Gideon. The film received strong critical praise, but underperformed at the U.S. and world box-office; it remains one of Spielberg’s most controversial films to date. Munich received five Academy Awards nominations, including Best Picture, Film Editing, Original Music Score (by John Williams), Best Adapted Screenplay, and Best Director for Spielberg. It was Spielberg’s sixth Best Director nomination and fifth Best Picture nomination.
Spielberg directed Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull, which wrapped filming in October 2007 and was released on May 22, 2008. This was his first film not to be released by DreamWorks since 1997. The film received generally positive reviews from critics, and has performed very well in theaters. As of May 10, 2010, Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull has grossed $317 million domestically, and over $786 million worldwide.
Spielberg at the 2013 Cannes Film Festival, during which he headed the main competition jury.
In early 2009, Spielberg shot the first film in a planned trilogy of motion capture films based on The Adventures of Tintin, written by Belgian artist Hergé, with Peter Jackson. The Adventures of Tintin, was not released until October 2011, due to the complexity of the computer animation involved. The world premiere took place on October 22, 2011 in Brussels, Belgium. The film was released in North American theaters on December 21, 2011, in Digital 3D and IMAX. It received generally positive reviews from critics, and grossed over $373 million worldwide. The Adventures of Tintin won the award for Best Animated Feature Film at the Golden Globe Awards that year. It is the first non-Pixar film to win the award since the category was first introduced. Jackson has been announced to direct the second film, which Spielberg will produce.
Spielberg followed that with War Horse, shot in England in the summer of 2010. It was released just four days after The Adventures of Tintin, on December 25, 2011. The film, based on the novel of the same name written by Michael Morpurgo and published in 1982, follows the long friendship between a British boy and his horse Joey before and during World War I – the novel was also adapted into a hit play in London which is still running there, as well as on Broadway. The film was released and distributed by Disney, with whom DreamWorks has made a 30-picture deal. War Horse received generally positive reviews from critics, and was nominated for six Academy Awards including Best Picture.
Steven Spielberg in conversation with Indian actor Amitabh Bachchan.
Spielberg next directed the historical drama film Lincoln, starring Daniel Day-Lewis as United States President Abraham Lincoln and Sally Field as Mary Todd Lincoln. Based on Doris Kearns Goodwin’s bestseller Team of Rivals: The Political Genius of Abraham Lincoln, the film covered the final four months of Lincoln’s life. Written by Tony Kushner, the film was shot in Richmond, Virginia, in late 2011, and was released in November 2012 by Disney’s Touchstone Pictures label in the United States. The film’s international distribution was handled by 20th Century Fox. Upon release, Lincoln received widespread critical acclaim, and was nominated for twelve Academy Awards (the most of any film that year) including Best Picture and Best Director for Spielberg. It won the award for Best Production Design and Day-Lewis won the Academy Award for Best Actor for his portrayal of Lincoln, becoming the first three time winner in that category as well as the first to win for a performance directed by Spielberg.
Versión Beta de nuestro Reader semántico
Nos complace muchísimo comentar que Mario Eskenazi ha diseñado Nueva imagen. Nuestro nuevo logo y nuestras nuevas portadas genéricas.
No creo necesario presentar a Mario, por lo menos la mitad de Barcelona ha sido diseñada por él. Personalmente lo conocí hace algunos años cuando coincidimos en la editorial Paidós, por entonces yo era editor (de mesa) y Mario diseñaba varias colecciones.
Quedan en la memoria de los lectores sus portadas de entonces:
Ahora Mario nos ha dado un serie de portadas con colores y tipos diferenciados. En mi opinión son una valiente continuidad de los interiores de nuestros libros, inspirados en mi apreciado libro “La nueva tipografía” de Jan Tschichold. Nosotros queríamos dinamizar nuestras portadas dentro de una exigencia inevitable: que fuesen portadas genéricas.
Aquí está el resultado. Esperamos seguir trabajando Mario. Hay mil cosas más que queremos hacer con él.
Los clásicos digitales
En un catálogo de clásicos las historias se entrecruzan y llevan de un libro a otro. Por ejemplo, el lector que tropiece con la Historia general de las Indias de Francisco López de Gómara tal vez no pueda evitar seguir leyendo otros libros relacionados. La Historia general de las Indias fue escrito en Argelia y, aunque Gómara nunca estuvo en el Nuevo mundo, estaba informado de muchos acontecimientos militares y conoció a fondo las intrigas políticas de su época porque era secretario y capellán de Hernán Cortés.
Éste no sólo había conquistado un imperio en América sino que en 1541 invadió Argelia bajo el mandato de Carlos I de España y allí, en una expedición condenada al fracaso, relató a su secretario los pormenores de su hazaña americana. Más tarde, el Inca Garcilaso de la Vega, quien consideraba ofensivo el libro de López de Gómara, lo increpó en un encuentro fortuito en Valladolid, indignado ante lo que en su opinión era una calumnia a la memoria latinoamericana.
El «Inca» había combatido con las fuerzas cristianas contra los moriscos rebeldes de La Alpujarra a finales del siglo XVI y también sirvió a los ejércitos españoles en Italia. De modo que, en aquella época, mientras se expulsaba a los moriscos y los judíos de España, llegaban al país los «incaicos» para servir en el ejército más poderoso del mundo. Curiosamente, el Inca combatió en España contra el mundo árabe, que luchaba por defender sus tradiciones con la misma fiereza con que él mismo trataba de reivindicar su pasado aborigen. La Historia general de las Indias, los Comentarios reales y el Memorial en defensa de las costumbres moriscas, de Francisco Núñez Muley, texto clave para entender la rebelión de los moriscos, muestran las complejas relaciones a que daba lugar el imperio hispano. De esta situación peculiar nace también una peculiar literatura clásica. Pero ¿cómo llega el lector a conocer estas relaciones? Sin duda alguna leyendo. No obstante, hoy las nuevas tecnologías nos permiten editar de un modo en que se sugieran estas relaciones sin los pesados, complejos y costosos aparatos críticos de antaño. La edición post impresa nos permite exponer estas relaciones a los lectores (mediante mapas, enlaces a obras relacionadas, aplicaciones que permitan realizar búsquedas o comparaciones entre los textos). Hemos dejado atrás la era de la cultura marcada por la reproductibilidad mecánica y entramos en la era de la cultura marcada por la conectividad.
Search Inside: Todos nuestros libros en Google Books
Sin duda alguna, para los lectores Google Books es una biblioteca universal incomparable. Pero también es una herramienta inmensamente útil para los editores y los investigadores cuando necesitan consultar alguna cita o pasaje. Hace unos años, el simple hecho de averiguar si existía alguna edición de un texto, o de localizar alguna cita para incluirla en una obra, podía representar horas de trabajo, y lamentablemente muchas veces era infructuoso. Gracias a la iniciativa de Google y de los editores que acceden a mostrar sus ediciones en Books (parcial o totalmente), hoy los lectores curiosos pueden darse una idea de qué trata un texto determinado, y los investigadoreso o los editores pueden realizar su trabajo mucho mejor, algo que también beneficia finalmente a los lectores. Al contrario de lo que piensan algunos autores o editores muy celosos de su trabajo, a nosotros nos parece que ofrecer la posibilidad de que alguien conozca la existencia de nuestros libros y pueda comprobar hasta qué punto satisfacen sus necesidades o su curiosidad, es una ventaja indiscutible para todos los que participamos en la industria del libro, desde los lectores hasta otros colegas editores, a cuyo trabajo podemos referir debidamente. Por eso hemos subido los 1.400 títulos de Linkgua a Google Books, donde podréis ver un 30% del contenido de todos ellos.
Los raros de Rubén Darío en la mesa de edición
Hace algún tiempo que queríamos publicar Los raros de Rubén Darío. Más de una vez pensamos en comprar alguna de las ediciones agotadas para abordar una nueva edición de la obra, pero la realización de algunos otros proyectos había demorado hasta hoy este trabajo. Y como más de una vez nuestros lectores nos han preguntado qué criterios justifican realizar cambios en el texto de un clásico, nos gustaría aprovechar la edición de esta obra para explicar en qué consiste nuestro trabajo.
Los raros, son un grupo de autores contemporáneos de Darío a los que éste defiende casi como emblemas de su época y de la literatura de finales del siglo XIX y principios del XX. Darío retrata, desde una perspectiva que no es sólo literaria sino también vital, a autores tan disímiles como Edgar Allan Poe, un casi mítico Conde de Lautreamont (del que por entonces apenas habían ediciones), Leconte de Lisle, Ibsen, Verlain, Villiers de L’Isle-Adam y José Martí. Puesto que el poeta conoció a la mayoría de los autores a los que se refiere, habla de sus temperamentos con el mismo entusiasmo con que habla de sus obras. Y así, Los raros no es sólo una exaltación de la literatura sino también de una forma de vida asociada a ella, ajena a las modas y a la gran industria. Darío parece sentirse obligado a rendir homenaje a estos autores, salvándolos de la indiferencia o del olvido. Pero además de referirse a sus autores de culto, Darío habla entre líneas de la obra de otros muchos escritores de la época franceses, ingleses, griegos, americanos y latinoamericanos, a los que vemos moverse en el ambiente febrilmente creativo del París de la última década del siglo XIX.
Pues bien, nuestra edición de Los raros parte de la editorial Mundo latino (Madrid, 1918), si bien hemos consultado algunas mas recientes. La edición original, aunque editada con esmero, adolecía de irregularidades en los nombres propios y topónimos, que aparecen a lo largo del libro con diferentes ortografías, citados unas veces en el idioma original y otras traducidos al castellano. Asimismo, hemos actualizado el uso de los acentos en:
Por otra parte, hemos restituido los acentos franceses de los apellidos de ciertos autores, cuando ello servía para unificarlos. La lista sería un poco más extensa pero se trata en todos los casos de cuestiones de este tipo. Por último, la edición que proponemos no incorpora apenas nuevas notas. Nuestra idea es ofrecer siempre una primera edición con el menor aparato crítico, a partir de la cual sea posible publicar tantas como los académicos necesiten y nos pidan, adaptadas cada una de ellas a las necesidades más específicas.